由 yóu

preposition
: to follow
: from
: it is for…to
: reason; cause; because of; due to
: to
: to leave it (to somebody)
: by (introduces passive verb)

Kun Reading

由 | よし yoshi

noun
: reason; significance; cause

由る OR 因る | よる yoru

godan verb with ru ending | intransitive verb
: (Usually written using kana alone) to be due to; to be caused by
: to depend on; to turn on
: to be based on; to come from

On Reading

ユ yu、 ユウ yuu、 ユイ yui

 Usage:

由於[于] you2yu2: due to; as a result of; thanks to; owing to; since; because
由來[来] you2lai2: origin
[由来 | ゆらい yurai: origin; source; history; derivation; reason; destiny]
由此 you2ci3: hereby; from this

由此可見 [由此可见] you2ci3 ke3jian4: from this, it can be seen that…

由徑[径] you2jing4: to follow a narrow path
自由 zi4you2: freedom; free; liberty
[じゆう jiyuu: freedom; liberty; as it pleases you]

自由神像 zi4 you2 shen2 xiang4: Statue of Liberty
自由の女神像 | じゆうのめがみぞう jiyuu no megamizou: Statue of Liberty

理由 li3you2: reason; grounds; justification
[りゆう riyuu: reason; pretext; motive]
不由 bu4you2: can’t help (doing something)
事由 shi4you2: main content; matter; work; origin of an incident; cause; purpose; subject (of business letter)
[じゆう jiyuu: reason; cause]
任由 ren4you2: to let (somebody do something); to allow



Japanese common word | expression | yojijukugo 四字熟語 | idiom
由々しい | ゆゆしい yuyushii
: grave; serious; alarming

*自由自在 | じゆうじざい jiyuu jizai
: (yoji) free; unrestricted; (with) complete mastery; completely in control

存在理由 | そんざいりゆう sonzai riyuu
: (yoji) reason for being; raison d’etre

自由濶達 | じゆうかったつ jiyuu kattatsu
: (yoji) free and easy; open and natural; not fastidious

自由放題 | じゆうほうだい jiyuu houdai
: (yoji) as freely as one pleases; at will; to one’s heart’s content

由って来る | よってきたる yotte kitaru
: originating; causing; beginning

理由を付ける | りゆうをつける riyuu o tsukeru
: to give a reason

原因において自由な行為 | げんいんにおいてじゆうなこうい genin ni oite jiyuu na koui
: actio libera in causa; manufacturing the conditions of one’s own defense (e.g. getting drunk in order to commit a crime)



Chinese common word | expression | chengyu 成語 | idiom
*自由自在 zi4 you2 zi4 zai4
: free and easy; carefree; leisurely

鬼由心生 gui3 you2 xin1 sheng1
: devils are born in the heart; fears originate in the mind

率由卓章 shuai4 you2 zhuo2 zhang1
: conservative

率由舊章 [率由旧章] shuai4 you2 jiu4 zhang1
: to act in accordance with the old rules; to follow a proven formula

聽天由命 [听天由命] ting1 tian1 you2 ming4
: to submit to the will of heaven; to resign oneself to fate; to trust to luck

行不由徑 [行不由径] xing2 bu4 you2 jing4
: lit. never taking a short-cut; fig. upright and honest

豐儉由人 [丰俭由人] feng1 jian3 you2 ren2
: fancy or simple according to sb’s budget

身不由己 shen1 bu4 you2 ji3
: without the freedom to act independently; involuntary; not of one’s own volition; in spite of oneself

言不由衷 yan2 bu4 you2 zhong1
: to say something without meaning it; to speak tongue in cheek; saying one thing but meaning something different

不自由,毋寧死 [不自由,毋宁死] bu4 zi4 you2 , wu2 ning4 si3
: give me liberty or give me death

人在江湖,身不由己 ren2 zai4 jiang1 hu2 , shen1 bu4 you2 ji3
: you can’t always do as you like; one has to compromise in this world

 Etymology:
会意 Associative Compound.
Path 丨 (gun3: line radical 2) to the
field 田 (tian2: field radical 102).



 Examples:
今は自由時間。
いまはじゆうじかん ima wa jiyuu jikan
It’s free time (period) now.

 

現在是自由時間。
xian zai shi4 ji4you2 shi2jian2
It’s free time (period) now.

 Music:
一千個傷心的理由 – Jacky Cheung 張學友

作詞:邢增華
作曲:李偲菘

愛過的人我已不再擁有
許多故事有傷心的理由
這一次我的愛情等不到天長地久
錯過的人是否可以回首
愛過的心沒有任何請求
許多故事有傷心的理由
這一次我的愛情等不到天長地久
走過的路再也不能停留
一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後我的愛情在故事裡慢慢陳舊
一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後在別人的故事裡我被遺忘

愛過的心沒有任何請求
許多故事有傷心的理由
這一次我的愛情等不到天長地久
走過的路再也不能停留
一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後我的愛情在故事裡慢慢陳舊
一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後在別人的故事裡我被遺忘

一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後我的愛情在故事裡慢慢陳舊
一千個傷心的理由
一千個傷心的理由
最後在別人的故事裡我被遺忘

credit: Jacky Cheung 張學友

Resources: Chinese Dictionary | Japanese Dictionary