石: stone | dry measure for grain

 

石 shí

noun | radical 112
: stone; rock
: stone inscription
: one of the eight ancient musical instruments 八音 (metal 金, stone 石, clay 土, leather 革, silk 絲, wood 木, gourd 匏, bamboo 竹)

石 dàn


: dry measure for grain equal to ten dou 斗; ten pecks
: one hundred liters

Kun Reading

石 | いし ishi

noun
: stone
: gem; jewel

On Reading

石 | こく koku


: measure of volume (approx. 180.39 liters, 6.37 cub. ft.)
: measure of a Japanese-style boat’s loading capacity (approx. 278.26 liters)

せき seki

 Usage:

石油 shi2you2: oil; petroleum
[せきゆ sekiyu: oil; petroleum; kerosene]
石頭[头] shi2tou: stone
[石頭 | いしあたま ishiatama: inflexible person]

石頭火鍋 [石头火锅] shi2 tou5 huo3 guo1: claypot (used in cooking)

石灰 shi2hui1: lime (calcium oxide)
[せっかい sekkai: lime; quicklime; caustic lime]
石榴 shi2 liu2: pomegranate
[ざくろ shakuro: pomegranate (Punica granatum)]
石膏 shi2gao1: gypsum CaSO4·2(H2O); plaster; plaster cast (for a broken bone)
[せっこう sekkou: plaster; gypsum; calcium sulphate (sulfate)]
石化 shi2hua4: to petrify; petrochemical industry
[せっか sekka: mineralization; petrifaction; fossilization]
化石 hua4shi2: fossil
[かせき kaseki: fossil; petrifaction; fossilization]
花石 hua1 shi2: marble
寶[宝]石 bao3shi2: precious stone; gem
[宝石 | ほうせき houseki: gem; jewel; precious stone]
岩石 yan2shi2: rock [がんせき ganseki: rock]
鑽[钻]石 zuan4shi2: diamond
[金剛石 | こんごうせき kongouseki: diamond]
礦[矿]石 kuang4shi2: ore
[礦石 | こうせき kouseki: mineral; ore]

公石 gong1dan4: hectoliter; quintal



Japanese expression | yojijukugo 四字熟語 | idiom | proverb
*一石二鳥 | いっせきにちょう isseki ni chou
: (yoji) killing two birds with one stone

焼け石に水 | やけいしにみず yake ishi ni mizu
: something bound to fail due to inadequate effort, assistance, etc.; pouring water on a hot stone

他山の石 | たざんのいし tazan no ishi
: lesson learned from someone’s else mistake; object lesson; food for thought; stones from other mountains (can be used to polish one’s own gems)

転石苔生さず | てんせきこけむさず tenseki koke musazu
: a rolling stone gathers no moss
OR
転石苔を生ぜず | てんせきこけをしょうぜず tenseki koke o shouzezu
: a rolling stone gathers no moss

雨垂れ石を穿つ | あまだれいしをうがつ amadare ishi o ugatsu
: slow but steady wins the race; constant effort will result in success; constant dripping wears away a stone

**他山の石以て玉を攻むべし | たざんのいしもってたまをおさむべし tazan no ishi motte tama o osamubeshi
: one should learn from other’s mistakes; stones from other mountains can be used to polish one’s own gems

石に齧り付いてでも | いしにかじりついてでも ishi ni kajiri tsuite demo
: (to get something done) even if through hell and high water

石橋を叩いて渡る | いしばしをたたいてわたる ishibashi o tataite wataru
: being excessively cautious; knocking on a strong stone bridge before crossing it



Chinese common word | chengyu 成語 | expression | idiom
*一石二鳥 [一石二鸟] yi1 shi2 er4 niao3
: to kill two birds with one stone

以卵擊石 [以卵击石] yi3 luan3 ji1 shi2
: lit. to strike a stone with egg; to attempt the impossible; to invite disaster by overreaching oneself

水落石出 shui3 luo4 shi2 chu1
: As the water recedes, the rocks appear; the truth comes to light. When facts are known, doubts dissipate.

海枯石爛 [海枯石烂] hai3 ku1 shi2 lan4
: lit. when the seas run dry and the stones go soft; fig. forever; until the end of time

滴水穿石 di1 shui3 chuan1 shi2
: dripping water penetrates the stone; constant perseverance yields success. You can achieve your aim if you try hard without giving up. Persistent effort overcomes any difficulty.
OR
滴水石穿 di1 shui3 shi2 chuan1

木人石心 mu4 ren2 shi2 xin1
: lit. body made of wood, heart made of stone; fig. heartless

鑽石王老五 [钻石王老五] zuan4 shi2 wang2 lao3 wu3
: highly eligible bachelor; desirable male partner

蜻蜓撼石柱 qing1 ting2 han4 shi2 zhu4
: lit. the dragon-fly shakes the stone tower; fig. to overestimate one’s capabilities

石頭、剪子、布 [石头、剪子、布] shi2 tou5 , jian3 zi5 , bu4
: rock-paper-scissors (hand game)

摸著石頭過河 [摸着石头过河] mo1 zhe5 shi2 tou5 guo4 he2
: to wade the river by groping for stones; to advance step by step; to feel one’s way around. Move cautiously

**他山之石可以攻玉 ta1 shan1 zhi1 shi2 ke3 yi3 gong1 yu4
: lit. the other mountain’s stone can polish jade; to improve oneself by accepting criticism from outside; to borrow talent from abroad to develop the nation effectively

搬石頭砸自己的腳 [搬石头砸自己的脚] ban1 shi2 tou5 za2 zi4 ji3 de5 jiao3
: to move a stone and stub one’s toe; to shoot oneself in the foot
OR
搬起石頭砸自己的腳 [搬起石头砸自己的脚] ban1 qi3 shi2 tou5 za2 zi4 ji3 de5 jiao3
: to crush one’s own foot while trying to maneuver a rock (to a cliff edge, to drop on one’s enemy); hoisted by one’s own petard

精誠所加,金石為開 [精诚所加,金石为开] jing1 cheng2 suo3 jia1 , jin1 shi2 wei4 kai1
: lit. sincerity splits open metal and metal; if you put your heart to it, you can break up metal and rocks. With a will, you can achieve anything.

 Etymology:


会意 Associative Compound.
Stone 口 (kou3: mouth radical 30) below a
cliff ⺁(han2: cliff radical 27)



“Stone” radical #112



  Look-alike:
you4: right; the Right (politics); west (old)
[kun: みぎ migi.
on: う u, ゆう yuu]



 Examples:
波浪冲击着岩石。
bo1lang4 chong1ji1 zhe yan2shi2
The waves are lashing against the rocks.

Resources: Chinese Dictionary | Japanese Dictionary