下 xià

verb | measure word
: down; downwards; below; lower
: later; next (week etc); second (of two parts)
: to decline; to go down; bring down
: to arrive at (a decision, conclusion etc)
: measure word to show the frequency of an action
: inferior

Kun Reading

下 | した shita

noun
: below; down; under; younger (e.g. daughter)
: bottom
: beneath; underneath
: just after; right after
: inferiority; one’s inferior (i.e. one’s junior)
: trade-in
: preliminary; preparatory

下 | もと moto

adverb
: under (esp. influence or guidance)

下 | しも shimo

noun
: lower reaches (of a river)
: bottom; lower part
: lower half (of the body, esp. the privates); feces; urine; menses
: end; far from the imperial palace (i.e. far from Kyoto, esp. of western Japan)
: (No-adjective) dirty (e.g. dirty jokes, etc.)

下り | くだり kudari

noun | noun suffix
: down-train (going away from Tokyo)
: down-slope; downward going

下さい | ください kudasai

expression
: (Usually written using kana alone) (Honorific or respectful language) please give me
: (after te-form of a verb or a noun prefixed with o- or go-) please do for me

下げる | さげる sageru

ichidan verb | transitive verb
: to hang; to lower; to move back; to wear; to dismiss; to grant

On Reading

下 | か ka

suffix
: under (being in said condition or environment)

下 | げ ge

noun
: lowness (of degree, value, etc.); inferiority
: second volume (of two); third volume (of three)

 Usage:

下午 xia4wu3: afternoon; p.m. [午後 | ごご gogo: afternoon; p.m.]
下去 xia4qu4: to go down; to descend; to go on; to continue; (of a servant) to withdraw
下課[课] xia4ke4: to finish class; to get out of class
下雨 xia4yu3: to rain

雨下 | うか uka: raining; downpour
降る | ふる furu: to precipitate; to fall (e.g. rain)

下班 xia4ban1: to finish work; to get off work
以下 yi3xia4: that level or lower; that amount or less; the following
[以下 | いか ika OR いげ ige: not exceeding; and downward; … and below
: below (e.g. standard); under (e.g. a level);
: the below-mentioned; the following; the rest]
地下 di4xia4: underground; subterranean; covert

地下 | ちか chika: basement; cellar; underground place;
: underground; below ground;
: secret; under cover;
: underground (railway); subway; metro

樓[楼]下 lou2xia4: downstairs
天下 tian1xia4: land under heaven; the whole world; the whole of China; realm; rule

天下 | てんか tenka OR てんが tenga OR てんげ tenge: the whole world
: the whole country;
: society; the public;
: supremacy over a nation; government of a country; the ruling power;
: having one’s own way; doing as one pleases;
: peerless; incomparable; superlative; world-famous;
: shogun (Edo period)

上下 shang4xia4: up and down; top and bottom; old and new; length; about

上下 | うえした ueshita OR しょうか shouka OR じょうか jouka
: top and bottom; up and down; high and low; above and below; upper and lower ends
: upside-down]

OR
じょうげ jouge: top and bottom; high and low; above and below; upper and lower ends; up and down
: going up and down; rising and falling; fluctuating;
: going and coming back;
: upper and lower classes; ruler and ruled; the government and the people;
: first and second volumes
OR
かみしも kamishimo: samurai costume; old ceremonial costume
: top and bottom; up and down; high and low; above and below; upper and lower ends



Japanese expression | yojijukugo 四字熟語 | idiomatic expression | proverb
*月下老人 | げっかろうじん gekka roujin
: (yoji) go-between; matchmaker

**瓜田李下 | かでんりか kaden rika
: (yoji) Be careful not to invite the least suspicion; Leave no room for scandal
OR
李下に冠を整さず | りかにかんむりをたださず rika ni kanmuri o tadasazu
: (proverb) leave no room for scandal; don’t do anything that can be misinterpreted; don’t straighten your cap under a plum tree (because when you raise your hands it might look as if you’re trying to steal the plums)

***天下太平 | てんかたいへい tenka taihei
: (yoji) peaceful and tranquil (uneventful); peace reigns over the land; halcyon times of peace

女房天下 | にょうぼうてんか nyoubou tenka
: (yoji) husband being henpecked; house where the wife is the boss; petticoat government

上下になる | うえしたになる ueshita ni naru
: to be upside-down

頭を下げる | あたまをさげる atama o sageru
: to bow; to bow one’s head
: to apologize
: to bow to; to yield to; to admire

御免下さい | ごめんください gomen kudasai
: may I come in?
: (polite language) please forgive me; I’m sorry

御覧下さい | ごらんください goran kudasai
: (kana only) (honorific or respectful language) please look at it

下手の長談義 | へたのながだんぎ heta no naga dangi
: Brevity is the soul of wit

下にも置かない | したにもおかない shita ni mo okanai
: giving a royal welcome; extending every courtesy

三尺下がって師の影を踏まず | さんじゃくさがってしのかげをふまず sanjakusa gatteshi no kage o fumazu
: (proverb) a student must never forget to honor their teacher

下手な考え休むに似たり | へたなかんがえやすむににたり heta na kangae yasumu ni nitari
: take a rest rather than useless thinking

下手の考え休むに似たり | へたのかんがえやすむににたり heta no kangae yasumu ni nitari
: (proverb) It’s hard to tell a poor thinker from a sleeping one. Mickle fails that fools think

下手な鉄砲も数撃ちゃ当たる | へたなてっぽうもかずうちゃあたる heta na teppou mo kazuucha ataru
: even the unskilled can succeed by a fluke given enough tries; even a poor marksman will hit the target with enough shots

****千里の行も足下に始まる | せんりのこうもそっかにはじまる senri no koumo sokka ni hajimaru
: a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step

卑下も自慢のうち | ひげもじまんのうち hige mo jiman no uchi
: (proverb) taking pride in one’s humility; he that humbleth himself wishes to be exalted; too much humility is pride

*****勇将の下に弱卒無し | ゆうしょうのもとにじゃくそつなし yuushou no moto ni jakusotsu nashi
: there are no cowardly soldiers under a superior general

恋に上下の差別無し | こいにじょうげのさべつなし koi ni jouge no sabetsu nashi
: Love makes men equal

桃李物言わざれども下自ずから蹊を成す | とうりものいわざれどもしたおのずからみちをなす
touri mono iwazaredo mo shita onozukara michi o nasu
: (proverb) A man of virtue will naturally attract admirers. Good wine speaks for itself

柳の下に何時も泥鰌は居ない | やなぎのしたにいつもどじょうはいない
yanagi no shita ni itsumo dojou wa inai
: Good luck does not always repeat itself

良いお年をお迎え下さい | よいおとしをおむかえください yoi otoshi o omukae kudasai
: Have a good New Year!

鼻の下を伸ばす | はなのしたをのばす hana no shita o nobasu
: to have a lewd look on one’s face; to ogle

金は天下の回り物 | かねはてんかのまわりもの kane wa tenka no mawari mono
: money comes and goes; money goes around and around



Chinese common word | chengyu 成語 | expression | idiom
*月下老人 yue4 xia4 lao3 ren2
: minor divinity concerned with marriage; matchmaker; go-between

手下留情 shou3 xia4 liu2 qing2
: lit. start off leniently; please do not be too strict with me; Do not judge me too harshly. Look favorably on my humble efforts.

拖人下水 tuo1 ren2 xia4 shui3
: lit. to pull sb into the water; fig. to involve sb in a messy business; to get sb into trouble

**瓜田李下 gua1 tian2 li3 xia4
OR
瓜田不納履,李下不整冠 [瓜田不纳履,李下不整冠] gua1 tian2 bu4 na4 lü3 , li3 xia4 bu4 zheng3 guan1
: lit. don’t tie your shoelaces in a melon patch, and don’t adjust your hat under a plum tree; fig. don’t do anything that might arouse suspicion; innocent acts may be misconstrued

***天下太平 tian1 xia4 tai4 ping2
: the whole world at peace; peace and prosperity

上行下傚[效] shang4 xing2 xia4 xiao4
: subordinates follow the example of their superiors

一較高下 [一较高下] yi1 jiao4 gao1 xia4
: to compete against; to measure oneself against; to go head to head (see who is best)

先下手為強 [先下手为强] xian1 xia4 shou3 wei2 qiang2
: strike first and gain the upper hand. Making the first move is an advantage.

上梁不正下梁歪 shang4 liang2 bu4 zheng4 xia4 liang2 wai1
: lit. If the upper beam is not straight, the lower beam will be crooked; fig. subordinates imitate their superiors’ vices

上有政策,下有對策 [上有政策,下有对策] shang4 you3 zheng4 ce4 , xia4 you3 dui4 ce4
: The higher ups have policies while the lower downs have their own ways of getting around them

上有天堂,下有蘇杭 [上有天堂,下有苏杭] shang4 you3 tian1 tang2 , xia4 you3 su1 hang2
: lit. there is heaven above, and there is 蘇杭|苏杭 below; fig. the beauty and affluence of Suzhou and Hangzhou is comparable with heaven

****千里之行,始於足下 [千里之行,始于足下] qian1 li3 zhi1 xing2 , shi3 yu2 zu2 xia4
: lit. a journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step; fig. big accomplishments come from an accumulation of little achievements made one by one

天下沒有不散的筵席 [天下没有不散的筵席] tian1 xia4 mei2 you3 bu4 san4 de5 yan2 xi2
: all good things must come to an end

天下無難事,只怕有心人 [天下无难事,只怕有心人] tian1 xia4 wu2 nan2 shi4 , zhi3 pa4 you3 xin1 ren2
: lit. nothing is difficult on this earth, if your mind is set

天下興亡,匹夫有責 [天下兴亡,匹夫有责] tian1 xia4 xing1 wang2 , pi3 fu1 you3 ze2
: The rise and fall of the nation concerns everyone. Everyone bears responsibility for the prosperity of society.

*****強將手下無弱兵 [强将手下无弱兵] qiang2 jiang4 shou3 xia4 wu2 ruo4 bing1
: there are no poor soldiers under a good general

比上不足比下有餘 [比上不足比下有余] bi3 shang4 bu4 zu2 bi3 xia4 you3 yu2
: to fall short of the best but be better than the worst; can pass muster

放下屠刀,立地成佛 fang4 xia4 tu2 dao1 , li4 di4 cheng2 fo2
: to lay down the butcher’s knife, and become a Buddha on the spot. Instant rehabilitation; to repent and be absolved of one’s crimes

臺上一分鐘,臺下十年功 [台上一分钟,台下十年功] tai2 shang4 yi1 fen1 zhong1 , tai2 xia4 shi2 nian2 gong1
: ten years of practice for one minute on the stage

與全世界為敵,冒天下之大不韙 [与全世界为敌,冒天下之大不韪] yu3 quan2 shi4 jie4 wei2 di2 , mao4 tian1 xia4 zhi1 da4 bu4 wei3
: to defy world opinion; to risk universal condemnation

 Etymology:


指事 Indicative.
Indicator 一 (yin: one) pointing to the area below in
marker 丅 (xia4: under)



Historical Variant:
丅 xia4: under; underneath; below; down; inferior; bring down; used to transliterate the Latin letter ‘T’

 Music:


聽見下雨的聲音 – Jay Chou 周杰伦
 
 
聽見下雨的聲音 – performed by Queen 魏如昀

作詞:方文山
作曲:周杰倫
編曲:陳君豪

竹籬上 停留著 蜻蜓
玻璃瓶裡插滿 小小 森林
青春 嫩綠的很 鮮明

百葉窗 折射的 光影
像有著心事的 一張 表情
而你 低頭拆信 想知道關於我的事情

青苔入鏡 簷下風鈴 搖晃曾經
回憶是 一行行無從 剪接的風景 愛始終年輕

而我聽見 下雨的聲音
想起你用唇語 說愛情
幸福也可以 很安靜
我付出一直 很小心

終於聽見 下雨的聲音
於是我的世界 被吵醒
就怕情緒紅 了眼睛
不捨得淚在 彼此的 臉上透明
愛在過境 緣分不停 誰在擔心
窗台上 滴落的雨滴 輕敲著傷心 淒美而動聽

而我聽見 下雨的聲音
想起你用唇語 說愛情
熱戀的時刻 最任性
不顧一切的 給約定

終於聽見 下雨的聲音
於是我的世界 被吵醒
發現你始終 很靠近
默默的陪在 我身邊 態度堅定

credit: Jay Chou 周杰倫

Resources: Chinese Dictionary | Japanese Dictionary